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Darwin

The open source version of Mac OS X from Apple, which allows developers to make their own improvements. Darwin is based on the Mach microkernel and various Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) versions of Unix. Although Darwin has been available as source code since 2000, the Mac OS X programming interface (API) source code is not, however, open and free to use. From 2002 to 2006, a community-based OpenDarwin project existed, which was followed by PureDarwin in 2007. See Mac OS X.



Mac OS X

(Mac OS 10) The current operating system from Apple for the Mac family. Starting in the fall of 2016, Version 10.12 uses the rebranded "macOS" moniker and not OS X. See macOS and Sierra.

OS X Server was introduced in 1999, and the client version came out in 2001. Based on Unix and featuring an entirely redesigned user interface, OS X was a major departure from the previous OS 9 system. For the first time, the rich set of Unix commands became available to all Mac developers (A/UX was an earlier Unix OS for the Mac but was not widely used).

OS X added protected memory, pre-emptive multitasking, multithreading and symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) to the Mac world. The heart of OS X is the open source, POSIX-compliant Darwin kernel, which includes an enhanced BSD 4.4 operating system and Mach 2.5 microkernel. See HFS.

Legacy Software
Prior to Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard), OS X ran legacy OS 9 and earlier applications via its Classic software, which was a full copy of OS 9 that ran as an OS X process. Classic was not preloaded on new Macs, but was available for installation from the system disks.

In 2006, Apple switched from the PowerPC to the Intel platform, and Classic support was dropped in the Intel version of OS X. However, PowerPC applications could run on Intel Macs via an emulator (see Rosetta).

Programming Environments
There have been five programming interfaces (APIs) for writing Mac OS X applications. Cocoa is the native OS X interface, derived from OpenStep. Carbon is used for applications that can run on both OS X and earlier Mac OS machines, and Classic is the API prior to Mac OS X. Programs can also be developed in Java and BSD. See OpenStep and Cocoa.

Faster Cats!
Mac OS X versions were internally code-named after jungle cats. Starting with Version 10.2 (Jaguar), the animals became the official product name until Version 10.9 (see below). See Rhapsody and Bonjour.


  OS X Version   Jungle Cat

  10.0   2001    Cheetah (code name)

  10.1   2001    Puma (code name)
  10.2   2002    Jaguar

  10.3   2003    Panther

  10.4   2005    Tiger

  10.5   2007    Leopard

  10.6   2009    Snow Leopard

  10.7   2011    Lion

  10.8   2012    Mountain Lion

  OS X Version   Place

  10.9   2013    Mavericks

  10.10  2014    Yosemite

  10.11  2015    El Capitan

  macOS Version  Place

  10.12  2016    Sierra

  10.13  2017    High Sierra





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