A CDE Definition
The first automatic data processing system. Developed by Herman Hollerith, a Census Bureau statistician, the machine was first used to count the U.S. census of 1890. It was so successful that Hollerith later formed the Tabulating Machine Company and sold his machines throughout the world for a variety of accounting functions. In 1911, his company merged with another company that was later renamed IBM. Following is the sequence of steps used to count the 1890 census. See punch card.
What a Concept!
Hollerith's Card Punch
The Punch Card Reader
The Hollerith System
High Tech in 1890
(1) See loyalty punch card.
(2) An early storage medium made of thin cardboard stock that held data as patterns of punched holes. Also called "punched" cards, each of the 80 or 96 columns held one character. The holes were punched by a keypunch machine or card punch peripheral and were fed into the computer by a card reader.
From 1890 until the 1970s, punch cards were synonymous with data processing. The concepts were simple: the database was the file cabinet; a record was a card. Processing was performed on separate machines called "sorters," "collators," "reproducers," "calculators" and "accounting machines." Today, the punch card is all but obsolete except for voting systems in some states. The presidential election of 2000 brought punch cards into infamy and made the U.S. the brunt of jokes worldwide for using such antiquated and error-prone systems. The solution in many states was to migrate to electronic voting machines, which happened to be developed without audit trails so that ballots could never be recounted in close elections (see e-voting). So much for progress! See sorter, tabulator and Hollerith machine.
IBM Punch Card
Before/After Your Search Term
|HODL||holographic data storage|
|holddown timer||holographic storage|
|hole punching||Holographic Versatile Disc|
|Hollerith card||Holy Grail|
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