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PARC

(Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated, Palo Alto, CA, www.parc.com) Founded in 1970, PARC is a Xerox subsidiary involved in high-tech research and development. Although Xerox's headquarters are in Stamford, Connecticut, and manufacturing and marketing are in Rochester, New York, PARC is located in the heart of Silicon Valley.

Over the years, PARC has made significant contributions to the computer industry, including the development of the Smalltalk programming language, graphical user interface (GUI), Ethernet networking and laser printing. It continues to be on the cutting edge of technology. Although well known throughout the high-tech world, PARC was one of several Xerox research centers until early 2002, when it was spun off as a separate subsidiary. See Xerox.




PARC
PARC is located in the Stanford University Industrial Park in Palo Alto, California. (Image courtesy of Palo Alto Research Center; Brian Tramontana, photographer.)






Xerox

(Xerox Corporation, Stamford, CT, www.xerox.com) A major manufacturer of analog and digital copy machines, computer printers and document management systems. Corporate headquarters are in Stamford, CT, while manufacturing and marketing is in Rochester, NY.

In 1906, the Haloid Company was founded in Rochester to manufacture and sell photographic paper. In 1947, it acquired the license to Chester Carlson's basic xerographic patents from Batelle Development Corporation and sold the first xerographic copier in 1950. In 1958, the company changed its name to Haloid Xerox, and three years later, to Xerox Corporation.

The Xerox 914 copier, introduced in 1959, was an outstanding success, and the xerography technology catapulted the company into the major leagues. Over the years, Xerox acquired a wide variety of companies in computers, financial services, publishing and education, many of which it sold or spun off later on. For more details about the xerographic process, see electrophotographic.

Its creation in 1970 of PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) resulted in major contributions to the computer industry, including the development of the first workstation with a graphical user interface, the mouse and Ethernet. As copy machines and printers merge into the world of networked document management, Xerox is at the forefront of this market, while continuing to research and develop new technologies.

The name Xerox means "dry writing" in Greek. The word xero means "dry," and graphy means "write." Carlson's invention used a dry, granular ink which replaced the messy liquid ink of the times.




The First Xerox Machine
The first xerographic copier was sold in 1950. Although manually operated, it was the progenitor of the 914. See Xerox Model A. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)






The Model 914
Nine years after the Model A, Xerox produced its first automatic xerographic machine. It was an outstanding success (see Xerox 914). (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)






The First Commercial GUI
Xerox's Star workstation was the first commercial implementation of the graphical user interface. The Star was introduced in 1981 and was the inspiration for the Mac and all the other GUIs that followed. (Image courtesy of Palo Alto Research Center.)






Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
PARC is located in the Stanford University Industrial Park in Palo Alto, California (see PARC). (Image courtesy of Palo Alto Research Center; Brian Tramontana, photographer.)






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