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A NetWare file used for security and accounting in the early NetWare 2.x and 3.x versions. The bindery pertained only to the server it resided in and contained the names and passwords of users authorized to log in to that server. It also held information about other services provided by the server to the client (print, modem, gateway, etc.).

Starting with NetWare 4, the bindery turned into NDS (Novell Directory Services), but NDS (later renamed eDirectory) is globally oriented, manages multiple servers and provides a naming service, which the bindery did not. Bindery emulation software enabled NetWare 2.x and 3.x clients to access services on NetWare 4.x servers. See eDirectory.


Novell's flagship network directory service which was included in NetWare as Novell Directory Services (NDS) beginning with Version 4. It was also available for Windows NT/2000, Windows Server 2003, Solaris, Linux, AIX and HP-UX.

Based on X.500
Based on the X.500 directory standard, eDirectory maintained a hierarchical database of information about network resources within a global enterprise, including networks, users, subgroups, servers, volumes and printers. Users logged in to the network, and eDirectory determined their access rights. eDirectory also supported LDAP.

When eDirectory was NDS, it supported the X.500 structure, but not all of the protocols. With the addition of software from Nexor Limited, eDirectory could query X.500 directories in governmental agencies and other organizations.

From NDS to eDirectory
As of Version 8, Novell Directory Services (NDS) became NDS eDirectory and a platform independent product that used the Internet's DNS naming system. Later, the NDS was dropped from the name. Version 8.5 added DNS Federation, which united DNS with NDS's original directory architecture, in which every network resource was an object. See network directory.

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