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graph database

A database structure that ties together relationships between data much more thoroughly than a relational database (RDBMS). There are fewer restraints, and data elements can be linked in almost any manner. When using a relational or NoSQL database, this connectedness has to be programmed into the queries and applications in order to derive the same results.

Ranking 20 graph databases in March 2016, DB-Engines.com listed Neo4j, OrientDB, Titan, Virtuoso and ArangoDB as the top five. See relational database.



relational database

A database that maintains a set of separate, related files (tables), but combines data elements from the files for queries and reports when required. The concept was developed in 1970 by Edgar Codd, whose objective was to accommodate a user's ad hoc request for selected data. Most every business database management system (DBMS), including Oracle, DB2, SQL Server, MySQL, etc., is a relational DBMS (RDBMS) (see DBMS).

Hierarchical, Network and Object Databases
In non-relational "hierarchical" and "network" databases, records in one file contain embedded pointers to the locations of records in another, such as customers to orders and vendors to purchases. These are fixed links set up ahead of time to speed up daily processing. Another type of non-relational database is the "object database," which stores data consistent with their object model (see object database).

Comparing and Joining
Routine queries to a relational database often require data from more than one file. For example, to obtain the names of customers who purchased a particular product, data must be extracted from both the customer and order files. A relational DBMS has the flexibility to "join" two or more files by comparing key fields such as account number and name and generating a new file from the records that meet the matching criteria (see join).

Indexes Are Used
In practice, a pure relational query can be very slow. In order to speed up the process, indexes are built and maintained on the key fields used for matching. Sometimes, indexes are created "on the fly" when the data are requested.


  Relational Terms       Common Term

  Table or Relation      File

  Row or Tuple           Record

  Column or Attribute    Field









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