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(INITial RAM Disk) The first file system loaded in a Linux operating system. In desktop computers, the initrd is temporary and another "root" file system is loaded. In embedded systems, initrd is the only file system. See file system.

file system

(1) The software that people use to copy, move, rename and delete files is known as a "file manager," not a file system (see file manager).

(2) The software and method for storing and retrieving files on a disk, SSD or USB drive. The file system takes commands from the operating system to read and write the disk clusters (groups of sectors). It manages the folder/directory structure and provides an index to the files. It also defines the syntax used to access them (how the "path" to the file is coded). File systems dictate how files are named as well as the maximum size of a file and volume of storage.

There are numerous file systems in use; for example, FAT32 and NTFS are Windows file systems, and APFS is used on Macs. Linux uses ext2, ext3 and FAT32. Unix systems use UFS, ext2, ext3 and ZFS. See block level, cluster, path, FAT32, NTFS, APFS, NFS, UFS, ext, ZFS and hierarchical file system.

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