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lead acid

A rechargeable battery technology that dates back to the mid-1800s. Liquid-filled lead acid batteries are used in vehicles, but gel-filled units, which came out in the early 1970s, provide the most economical battery for UPS systems and electric carts (scooters, wheelchairs, etc.). Lead acid was also used in some early portable computers. Providing the least amount of charge per pound of the rechargeable batteries, the lead acid technology uses lead plates and an acid electrolyte. See batteries.



batteries

Following is a summary of the characteristics of popular battery technologies. For more details, see lead acid, nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, lithium polymer, liquid metal battery, zinc air, CMOS battery and memory effect.


 CHARACTERISTICS OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

                                    Self
                   Recharge         Dis-
         Energy    Cycles    Fast   charge
         Density   To 80%   Charge  Per
 Type    (Wh/Kg)*  Capacity  (hrs)  Month

 Nickel
  Cadmium   45-80    1500     1      20%

 Nickel Metal
  Hydride   60-120  300-500   2-4    30%

 Lithium
  Ion      110-160  300-500   2-4    10%

 Lithium
  Polymer  100-130  300-500   2-4    10%

 Lead Acid   30-50  200-300   8-16    5%

                    To 50%
                    Capacity
 Reusable
  Alkaline    80      50      2-3    0.3%


  Data courtesy of
  Cadex Electronics Inc. (www.cadex.com).

  * Wh/Kg = watt hours per kilogram





A Lot of Batteries
This roomful of lead acid batteries stands ready to drain itself entirely in less than a minute. It serves as interim power for a large datacenter between the time a power outage has been detected and the generators can come up to full speed.






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