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least privilege

A basic principle in information security that holds that entities (people, processes, devices) should be assigned the fewest privileges consistent with their assigned duties and functions. For example, the restrictive "need-to-know" approach defines zero access by default and then opens security as required. All data in a corporate network would be off-limits except to specific people or groups (see role-based access control).

In contrast, a less-restrictive strategy opens up all systems and closes access as required; for example, allowing employees access to all systems except human resources and accounting, which would be limited to only employees in those departments.

role-based access control

The identification, authentication and authorization of individuals based on their job titles within an organization. Contrast with mandatory access control and discretionary access control. See least privilege.

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